Micro & nano-fabrication:
  • Physical vapor deposition: OAD and GLAD techniques
  • Chemical synthesis: PE-CVD, ALD, Hydrothermal etc.
  • Ball milling
  • Spin-coating
  • Spray pyrolysis
  • Photolithography
  • Material processing: annealing, oxidation/ reduction, RIE (reactive ion etching) etc.

 Characterization techniques:

  • X-ray diffraction (XRD) and texture (pole figure)
  • UV-Visible-NIR spectroscopy
  • Raman & Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • ToF (time-of-flight) SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry)
  • Electron microscopy: SEM, SEM-EDX, TEM
  • Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy
  • Dynamic light scattering: size distribution analysis & Zeta potential
  • Dye adsorption characterization: equilibrium adsorption and kinetics
  • Linear and non-linear optical characterizations

 Photocatalytic activity (PCA) related characterizations:

  • Organic dye degradation
  • Solar-energy conversion and PEC characterizations: External quantum efficiency (EQE), current-voltage, cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperommettery, and  incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE%); solar water splitting: H2 and O2 generation