Citations + Further Reading

Many thanks to our classmates and Professor Laine Nooney, for their invaluable analysis and feedback.  In this project, we drew on many historical sources.  We have provided links to those sources here for readers who wish to continue to learn about the history of microcomputing and software piracy, along with other interesting sources that may provide further insights on related topics.


Live the original experience

Read about games from this time period and make your own “purchases” based on information from original magazines in this project from our classmates.


Academic Articles


Dahlstron, Dana et al. Piracy in the Ditigal Age. 2006.


Driscoll, Kevin. Professional Work for Nothing: Software Commercialization and “An Open Letter to Hobbyists”. 2015


Hesse, Carla. The rise of intellectual property, 700 b.c.–a.d. 2000: an idea in the balance. 2002.


Lin, Albert. Hacker/Pirate Interaction in the Computer Underground. 1995.


Marshall, Patrick G. Software Piracy: Can the government help stop the drain on profits? 1993.


Mihm, Mickey T. Software Piracy and the Personal Computer: Is the 1980 Software Copyright Act Effective?, 4 Computer L.J. 171 (1983)


Vee, Annette. Text, Speech, Machine: Metaphors for Computer Code in the Law. 2012.





Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution [part one]. 1984.


History of the SPA

Infoworld, Nov 26, 1984 pg 20


Archival Film and Interviews


From the Very Beginning … from My Vantage Point


Hackers: Wizards of the Electronic Age (1986) PBS Computer Hacking Documentary


Lee Felsenstein, Oral history


Lee Felsenstein, interview about the first software pirate


Len Shustek, Lee Felsenstein: The Homebrew Computer Club





The Copyright Act of 1909


The Copyright Act of 1976


H.R.6934 – Computer Software Copyright Act of 1980


Dowling v. United States, 473 U.S. 207 (1985)


Computer Magazines


Archives of Computer Magazines


Byte Magazine








Computer History

Renee Shelby’s first project exploring the history of hacking


The Computer History Museum


Wacky copy protection methods from the good old days, Tech Blog.


A Pirate’s Life for Me, Part 1: Don’t Copy That Floppy!, The Digital Antiquarian.


Why History Needs Software Piracy, Technologizer.


Apple II Copy Protection, Big Mess O’ Wires