In about 1–2% of all live births, the human aortic valve only consists of two anomalous leaflets and is known as the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAVs are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly and are associated with significant valvular dysfunction such as calcific aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR). BAVs are also associated with aortic wall abnormalities including coarctation of the aorta, ascending aortic dilatation and aneurysms.
- Yap, C. H., Saikrishnan, N., Tamilselvan, G., Vasilyev, N., & Yoganathan, A. P. (2012). The congenital bicuspid aortic valve can experience high-frequency unsteady shear stresses on its leaflet surface. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 303(6), H721-H731.
- Saikrishnan, N., Yap, C. H., Milligan, N. C., Vasilyev, N. V., & Yoganathan, A. P. (2012). In vitro characterization of bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics using particle image velocimetry. Annals of biomedical engineering, 40(8), 1760-1775.